The name of Massa Marittima is misleading, with the adjective "marittima", which means "maritime" in Italian, seeming to refer to the vicinity of the ocean.
The name is misleading, with the adjective "marittima", which means "maritime" in Italian, seeming to refer to the vicinity of the ocean or the fact, affirmed by various local legends, that far back in time the ocean lapped at these hills and later receded.
Actually, the adjective denotes the region in which the city is located: that very special environmental and cultural setting known as the Maremma, while the word "massa" signified in late Latin an aggregation of landed properties: thus, Massa di Marittima.
It is situated in the area of the "Colline Metallifere", or Metalliferous Hills, noted for the presence of minerals which have been associated since Etruscans times with the mining activity which have been such a distinctive feature of the city's economic and social history.
The city is divided in three parts called "terzieri", a division which came about during the thirteenth century when the transition from a feudal type of organization to a communal one was accomplished. Around the year 1000, the first urban nucleus established itself in proximity to the Castello di Monteregio (Castle of Monteregio) which, as the residence of the Bishop-Count, was built on the highest point of the hill.
In 1225, after the city was liberated from Bishop and the Free Commune had been proclaimed, work was begun on the public buildings necessary for civic life and which would form what later became known as the Città Vecchia (Old City).
The main square thus gathered together, the first example of such a form, all the most important buildings - the Cathedral, the Ecclesiastic Residence, the Palazzo del Podestà, the Town Hall, the Loggia del Comune, the Mint and the Public Fountain - and from it descended the streets of the Borgo, where the artisan shops were located.
During the first half of the 13th century, the large increase in population due to the favorable social and economic conditions created by the new institution of the commune made it necessary to enlarge the urban area.
This extension, known as the Città Nuova (New City), arose in the immediate vicinity of the Torre del Candeliere, which was just then being completed.
It was given a particular urban design characterized by an orthogonal grid plan, and the Church of S.Agostino was built to replace the older S.Piero all'Orto which was by now insufficient.
In 1335 Siena conquered the city and put an end to the Free Commune.
This was the beginning of a period of grave decay and depopulation.
A few years after their victory, the Siennese built the Fortezza, connecting it with an arch to the Torre del Candeliere, and a new set of city walls, which still divide the Old City and the Borgo from the New City.
Around the middle of the 16th century, under the rule of the Medici, and still more so during the eighteenth century with the policies of the Lorraine Grand Dukes, the necessary conditions were created for a renewal of mining activity, which was followed by a period of new prosperity and economic stability.
Massa Marittima, that despite the name is more than twenty kilometers far from the sea, is considered one of the medieval jewels of Tuscany. Its origins are wounded by mystery, traces of an human settlement of the Bronze Age has been found in its outskirts. In the Etruscan period the zone was known for the wealth of its mines, probably the city was the 'Massa Veternense' of Roman Age.
After this periods the settlement remained at the borders of the history at least until the 9th century, when it became center of the Episcopalian power, thanks to the transfer of the Bishop's Main Seat from Populonia. The Bishop preferred to leave the coast, became marshy and object of continuous raids of the Greek and Saracens pirates, to retire the court in the heart of the 'Colline Metallifere'. It seems that first wasn't selected Massa Marittima as seat, in fact are of 1016 the first traces of the existence on site of a church and of the beginning of the 12th century those of the constitution of an Episcopal center.
In the 1225 Massa becomes a free city-state, detaching definitely from the Episcopalian control, and from this time begun a period of great prosperity, thanks to the commercial exploitation of the mineral (iron, copper, lead, silver) of which the zone was rich, so much that the name of the town was changed in 'Massa Metallorum'. In this era were build the great monuments as the Romanic-Gothic Cathedral (initiated perhaps already in the 12th century), the Praetorian Palace and the Public Palace (1230), the Public Fountain (1265), all inside the town walls of the lower town, still today endowed by two gates (called Salnitro and S.Bernardino).
Afterward was launched a grandiose plain of transformation of the upper city, call subsequently 'New Town', and here was written the 'Codice Minerario', one of the most important juridical medieval documents of Italy and perhaps the most ancient example of job-legislation, with the purpose to control all the extractive, mining and entrepreneurial activities. In the first years of 1300 the city counted between 10.000 and 20.000 inhabitants.
The Public Fountain.
The prosperity, together with the strategic position, attracted on Massa the aims of Pisa, Siena and Florence, in whose disputes the town was involved up to 1337, when it fell under the Senese domination. Siena immediately planned, thanks to the imposition of strong taxes, the reconstruction and the enlargement of the fortifications: a second walls circuit was erected all around the 'New Town' and, between the 'two towns', the Fortress.
This acted in practice as 'bearing' between the old and new town, dominating both, englobing the ancient fortress and Episcopalian residence of Monteregio (of which don't remain traces) and the primitive Keep, the 'Candeliere tower', today reduced of a third part of its original height, joined to the walls from a bridge with rampant arc. In this point, to the vertex of the Moncini street that join the two town parts, rises the magnificent gate 'Alle Silici', with a double breteche (a small projection beyond the wall that covers the entrance below), perhaps the most beautiful and still intact medieval town gate of Tuscany. The form of the Senese fortress is like a 'butterfly', in fact the two wall curtains are separated by only 15 meters at north, in correspondence of the aforesaid gate, and by 42 at south, where they englobed the Episcopalian fortress. These defensive system was studied with the purpose to guarantee safety and external contacts in the case that both the parts of the city fallen in hostile hands. The town walls have the same characteristics of the fortress, endowed with machicolations (opening between the corbels of the parapet through which the defenders can drop rocks or fire projectiles against an enemy directly below them) in stone, alternated by square towers. Today are still intact the S.Francesco gate and the whole eastern side of the enclosure while a big part of the western side was demolished between the 18th and 19th century.
The Black Plague in 1348 and the loss of the autonomy caused the decline of Massa, so much that in 1408 the population was reduced to 400 persons. In 1555, defeated the Senesis from Charles the 5th army, allied with that Florentine, the city was annexed to the Granduchy of Tuscany. However, it was only thanks to the reclamation of the 18th century, made by the Lorena, that the zone reborned with the development of the agriculture and of the extractive activities. The city has been rediscovered, especially in the last century, from historical, researchers and artists that have contributed to bring its patrimony to the ancient shine, thanks to great works restorations. Today the town center of Massa Marittima is a forced destination for all the lovers of the Middle Age.
Of medieval origin, the Castello di Prata was owned by a rich local family tied by feudal bonds to the Bishop of Massa. In the mid-thirteenth century it fell under Siennese rule and was ceded to the Spedale di Santa Maria della Scala. In the same period, the old Church of Santa Maria Assunta was also rebuilt and modified; today it is a complex composed of a cherch, a chapel and the campanile.
The first documents date to the 19th century. In the 13th century it belonged to the powerful Aldobrandeschi family. In the 14th century it was conquered by the Siennese; starting in 1404, it was administered directly from Siena. The circle of walls, a gateway arch and the fortress can still be seen. The Church of S.Sebastiano as it is today is the result of an 18th century architectural work imposed on a medieval plan.
Around the end of the 19th century, after an important pyrite deposit was discovered in the area, a mine was opened, and the village of Niccioleta was established near the by. It was characterized, like all mining towns, by a church, the villa of the director of the mine, and the low, simple houses belonging to the miners and their families.
The first nucleus of the settlement (14th century) owes its existence to the establishment of a metallurgical complex for working iron from the island of Elba, considerably enlarged in the Medici and Lorraine periods. It began to decline in 1830, when Leopold II decided to create a great iron-working center at Follonica. Worth seeing are the remains of the foundries with the first, rudimentary smelting oven from the 14th century.
In the immediate vicinity of Massa Marittima:
the archeological area of Lago dell'Accesa (Etruscan village, 7-6th centuries B.C.); Church and Convent of Vetreta (15th century, the first church built in honor of S.Bernardino); Molinpresso (14th century windmill in the shape of a fortified castle); Fonti di Bufalona (13th century public fountains); Ghirlanda (ruins of old train station); Capanne (important mining center. The equipment, by now unused for a long time, provides an interesting illustration of the techniques used in metalworking).
Been born in 1993 on initiative of the Photographic Group of Maritime Mass, the demonstration, especially in the last years, has gotten a notable comparison of public, proposing mostre3 of authors among the most representative of the contemporary photo, from Oliviero Toscani to Lucien Clergue to Anthony Salgado. Tuscany Photo Festival is opened in August with photographic shows, meetings and projections, while in September it proposes to the impassioned ones some workshops conducted by great names of international fame on the techniques and on the secret that allow to experiment and to understand as the photo can become authentic artistic expression.
Massa Marittima: discover the surroundings
Accommodations in the area
- Castagneto Carducci (Livorno)
27 km from Massa Marittima
Podere Vignanova, little charming resort in Tuscany, in one of the more enchanting corners of the Etruscan coast, where vineyards with wines which are conquering the world.Availability request
Surrounded by important vineyards in Castagneto hills the farm holding includes an old country house which hosts 4 comfortable flats and 4 delightful suites.
- Castiglione della Pescaia (Grosseto)
30 km from Massa Marittima
Beautiful villa with swimming pool surrounded by greenery and tranquility of the exclusive tourist destination Punta Ala and small attic used as service personnel only 300 meters from the sea of Tuscany.Availability request
This ideal solution for those who want to spend their holidays near the beautiful sea of Punta Ala with the comforts of an exclusive villa.
- Castiglione della Pescaia (Grosseto)
31 km from Massa Marittima
Beautiful and characteristic villa with stone finishes located in the exclusive Roccamare area in Castiglione della Pescaia.Availability request
Surrounded by the green of the pine forest and the total privacy with 2000 sqm park equipped with relaxation area and barbecue is located about 400 meters from the sea and has a private beach.
- Colle Val D'Elsa (Siena)
42 km from Massa Marittima
La Pieve, charming farmhouse located on the hills of Val d'Elsa, between Volterra and San Gimignano, along the Via Francigena, in the heart of the Tuscan countryside, with its luxuriant nature and rich history.Availability request
Framed by olive trees and a wood, it fosters a direct dialogue with nature in complete relaxation where they contemplate and enjoy the stillness in private and unique spaces.
- Siena (Siena)
46 km from Massa Marittima
Agriturimo Marciano : an exlusive opportunity, two holidays at the place of only one. stay in the country and life downtown. Marciano is located near the walls of the Middle Age town of Siena.Availability request
Five confortable double rooms and a suite with a beautiful sight on the Siena Duomo
- San Gimignano (Siena)
47 km from Massa Marittima
La Fornace di Racciano is a lovely Bed&Breakfast a short distance from the historical centre of medieval San Gimignano. It consists of a typical Tuscan country house surrounded by a large flowery garden.Availability request
La Fornace di Racciano consists of seven comfortable rooms and four apartments, two of which are located in the ancient hamlet of Racciano.
- San Gimignano (Siena)
47 km from Massa Marittima
Agriturismo Villa il Palagetto located in the vicinity of the medieval centre of San Gimignano, nestled in the rolling hills of the gorgeous Tuscan countryside.Availability request
Provides comfortable accommodation in 6 double bedrooms and two Suites
- San Gimignano (Siena)
50 km from Massa Marittima
In the vicinity of the medieval centre of San Gimignano, nestled in the rolling hills of the gorgeous Tuscan countryside, Agriturismo La Lucciolaia is perfectly located for exploring Tuscany's most prized art towns.Availability request
This ancient farmhouse has been recently renovated and divided into eleven double rooms and two Suites, where the magic atmosphere of past times is perfectly blended with modern comforts.
- San Gimignano (Siena)
51 km from Massa Marittima
Azienda Agricola Biologica Cesani is an organic farm nestled in the rolling hills of the Tuscan countryside, in the tiny country hamlet of Pancole, 6 km to the medieval town of San Gimignano.Availability request
Azienda Agricola Biologica Cesani is an organic farm nestled in the rolling hills of the Tuscan countryside, in the tiny country hamlet of Pancole, 6 km to the medieval town of San Gimignano.
- Montepulciano (Siena)
75 km from Massa Marittima
Immersed in the verdant countryside around the noble town of Montepulciano, that boasts ancient Etruscan origins, Le Caggiole Estate is perfectly located for exploring Tuscany's most prized treasures.Availability request
In a relaxing and cosy atmosphere uests are offered three comfortable, quiet double rooms with private bathrooms and two comfortable apartments for two persons and for small family groups.
- Fucecchio (Florence)
80 km from Massa Marittima
Relais Hotel Vedute Florence surrounded by green countryside is located in a strategic position near Florence, Lucca, Pistoia, Pisa and SienaAvailability request
Our Wellness Center & Ayurvedic Thai Aquamor invites you to know Ayurvedic and Thai experience in Fucecchio Florence
- Firenze (Florence)
82 km from Massa Marittima
The charming Marignolle Relais & Charme, nestled the hills of Florence, is the ideal solution for those who want a place of excellence and relaxation and love peace and privacy without the amenities of a luxury hotel.Booking ONLINE
Marignolle Relais & Charme is especially appreciated by travelers looking for style and tradition by offering deluxe rooms or junior suites in a refined, with superior comforts and impeccable services that make this relais an excellence of Florence.
- Lucca (Lucca)
100 km from Massa Marittima
Historic villa 14 km from the center of Lucca immersed in the green of the Tuscan vineyards and olive groves, it has a private swimming pool and a large park.Availability request
Set on 350 square meters in a dominant position offers a unique view of the hills of Tuscany.
- Massarosa (Lucca)
101 km from Massa Marittima
Stone farmhouse in typical Tuscan style skilfully and elegantly renovated in a dominant position on the hills of Massarosa with spectacular views that reach the sea of Tuscany. The farmhouse has a swimming pool with whirlpool.Availability request
Perfect solution for those that search the real authentic Tuscany staying in the hills but not far from the Versilia sea.
- Massarosa (Lucca)
104 km from Massa Marittima
Beautiful ancient Tuscan farmhouse completely renovated located on Tuscan hills 10 km from the golf course of Versilia. The villa can accommodate up to 14 people.Availability request
An oasis of peace for those looking for a stay in the Tuscan hills while staying close to the sea. Perfect for a relaxing holiday in close contact with nature.
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