The Pisan Mountain, now commonly called "Pisan Mountains" understood as the whole extent of the mountainous system, is in Tuscan, and seems put to divide a plain and two town, Pisa and Lucca.
The Pisan Mountain, now commonly called "Pisan Mountains" understood as the whole extent of the mountainous system, is in Tuscan, and seems put to divide a plain and two town, Pisa and Lucca, they are touched by two rivers, the Serchio, and Arno.
The Pisan Mountains occupy a territory form vaguely oval lengthened, extending from S/E To N/O, for a length of 20 km, with a width of 10 Km. In the group distinguish for height: Mt. Faeta 831 m., Spuntone of S. Allago 870 m., Mt. Serra 917 m., Mt. Pruno 876 m., and Mt. Verruca 537 m., that erect to fan, forming a valley turned to South, said "Valgraziosa". In the group also exist several types of habitats given by the different exposure to the sun during the day, from the Lucchese side To N/E, find an undergrowth and a damper microclimate, instead from the Pisan side to S/O, affected also from the closeness of the sea have an environment more sunny and dry. In the zones of low share of all the mountainous chain the vineyards are diffuse, then passes to the terrazzamenti of olives, and in the highest shares are extensive: chestnuts wood, coppices of beech and oak, alternated to extensive pinewoods. Even though in the last decades the number of the violent waste fires has increased and evil the nature, of which, still we see the signs, the group still preserves unchanged his big ambient value. Is present a little zone of Larico pine, of which the origin has not been understood yet. Maybe are little fragments of far epoches, in which the kind was more diffuse.
The historians and geologists think that the group of the Pisan Mountains is one of the mountainous formations most ancient of Italy. The clues most remote of that are "the Scisti of S. Lorenzo ", ( coal permo age, about 280 million of years ) that are on the Cotrozzi mt., formed during the said geological era Paleozoic or primary ( stones appearing also in the core of the Apuane Alps ). In particular in the Scisti of S. Lorenzo a rich fossil flora has been found. The type of vegetation, the amount and the level of his development makes think of a climate decidedly tropical, hot damp, what supported an development of flourishing forests with floras prevalently swampy (Lycopodial and Equisetum) in wet environments and lagoon. Subsequently the mountains became one among the few "atolls" in the pliocenic period, when the central Italy was covered, for most from water. Their formation would have happened, with a first lifting phase followed by a second sinking phase, this is the because of some there lean on the plain. Part of mountains, above all the piedmont South-west part, is constituted of calcareous roccie, fact that it has allowed the formation of cavities become caverns in various cases more or not extensive. To notice than for the geological science exists a rock, called Verrucana which has really taken the name from the Verruca mountain that one finds in the Pisan mt. (in top rises the ruin of an ancient fortress) and that it distinguishes him for his presence.
The mountain's anthropic presence is begun in much remote epoches in fact, thanks to the first spelaeological explorations of the cave led by the half of the eight hundred, paleontologic and paleo-ethnologic fossil of the superior Paleolith have been found, ever since however the biggest frequentation, has had herself above all to South, in the Calci zone, before the Etruscan ones, from apuani or Ligurians, because the valley was supplied with all one what of better the nature could still offer: shelter, water, game, woods. Later, after the Etruscan, came Romans, what as precedents used the calcareous stone of the Pisan Mountains to do lime, and being near of Arno and also of the sea at that epoch, to deal in it in the Mediterranean sea, as we know from the findings of the Roman ships under the station trains of Pisa S. Rossore. To the dawnings of the Christian cult, the zone was identified as ideal place for the retirement and the prayer. This gave the start to the building of various churches, orators, parishes, allowing the development of the main country: Calci.
The Pisan Mountains thanks to a far colonization of the man and to a limited surface are strewed with paths, muletracks, cartways, roads for the fireproof road service, without considering private roads by now in disuse and deserted paths. Thanks to this net of ways is possible to covering them in long and wide during all the year, thanks also the meek climatic conditions. So to be able to explore and to know the environment, and admire the natural beauties they can offer to the excursionist. The valley called "pretty valley", which is turned at the sea, and is covered at the shoulders by the Pisan mountain, is strewed with ways which so short or long, they always introduce with splendid views, furthermore the crossed resorts, are interesting both under the point of naturalistic view, ambient, historical, artistic and social economics. The valley is wound prevalently along two torrents, the Zambra of Calci and the Zambra of Montemagno, which, thanks to the energy which owns his water, make go the wheels of beyond a hundred watermills, oil mills and other factory in the valley, even if it is possible to see some signs also today. The departure point for the various routes is generally the council place of Calci. The tourist that covers the paths of our mountains, it will find some signs coloured of white and red on the ground, which has been realized by the section of Pisa of the Italian Alpine Club in cooperation with the provincial administration of Pisa and the six interested councils.
The system of signs consists of red white signs on the ground, some which with its numeration, according to the rules adopted by CAI in compliance with the Tuscany Area. Furthermore, indicative and informative notices are present, along the ways and in the lived centers from where these branch out. The system of signs net leans to an axial way or -0-0-, that is managed by the CAI of Pisa, while the other ways are managed by the common individuals; this are marked by one or two digits preceded from zero, to differentiate them from whats CAI directly manages in other mountainous groups.
Ways on the Pisan Mountains are divided into enclosures or "rings", from -01- to -08-, and open or of connector, from -010-to -045-. The maintenance and the signalling of these ways are ensured in the time by the corporations mentioned below, while as regards all the other paths it is not instead possible ensure the practicability state. For example many historical muletracks, a time very frequented, are today unobtainable, narrow paths and also a some cartways if not frequented and cleaned up whithin little time he to cover with branches completely with briers or brooms, in the dirt roads deep furrows can be produced by the rain waters.